The Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Some Haematological Parameters in Domestic Birds: A Study in Camp2 Village, Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals in the blood of birds reared for food in Camp2 Community of Akamkpa, Cross River State, Nigeria. Twelve (12) male indigenous jungle fowls (Gallus domestica), six each from the control site (Ugep) and from Camp2 were sampled for the studies. Venous blood samples from the wings of the blood were collected and used for hematological and metal analysis. After digestion of the blood, heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As), and Nickel (Ni)] were detected using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results indicated that Cd, Pb, As and Hg) levels in birds from camp2 village was significantly higher (p<0.05; p = 0.0070) than those of the Ugep control site. The average value of nickel in the blood of Camp2 birds (4.72+1.32mg/L) was significantly higher (p>0.05; p= 0.003) than that of the Ugep control site (4.22+1.07mg/L). The result shows that nickel, lead and Cadmium in blood samples were significantly (p<0.05; p = 0.023) higher in Camp2 compared to the control site. Hence, these values were above WHO standard (0.1mg/l) and FAO/WHO standards of (0.2mg/kg) while others were within joint FAO/WHO standard limit. The studies show that domestic birds can bioaccumulate heavy metals in their blood, which in turn, presents serious health risks to humans who consume these birds within the communities.

 Eteng Ofem Effiom, Imo Grace Ekpo. Joe Enobong Esiet, Moses Ceaser Antiya, Abam Kenyoh Eteng, Victor Samson Ekam and Eyong Ubana Eyong