Sublethal Effects of Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos on Hemato-Immunological Parameters of the Gercacinid Crab, Cardiosoma armatum (Herklots, 1851)
Low insecticide exposure has been shown to cause profound effects on non-target organisms, including crabs. Therefore, the changes in hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and antioxidant enzymes in the Gercacinid crab, Cardiosoma armatum were assessed during 28-day exposure to four concentrations of organophosphate chlorpyrifos (0.003, 0.006, 0.03 and 0.06 mg/l). The results showed a significant (P= 0.0) decrease in packed cell volume and total haemocyte count of the exposure crabs (except in 0.003 mg/l concentration) compared to control group. There were no significant changes in hemocyte sedimentation rate, granulocyte and agranulocyte, although all exposure groups increased in hemocyte sedimentation rate and agranulocyte with respective ranges of 3.00-3.02 mm/hr and 64.00-67.00 %. Except for alkaline phosphatase, there were no significant variation in the biochemical profile of both the control crabs and exposure crabs, although organophosphate chlorpyrifos exposure induced increase in all the measured biochemical parameters. The serum protein level and the activities of the enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde) were inhibited in exposure groups. The changes in these hemato-immunological parameters of the crabs were suitable biomarkers of a sub-lethal exposure to chlorpyrifos at the concentrations tested, and this will be useful in biomonitoring of aquatic environment.
Ugwu Christian Chinonso, Moruf Rasheed Olatunji and Lawal-Are Aderonke Omolara