Evaluating extracts of spondias mombin for antimicrobial activitie E Umeh, J Igoli, E Agada, S Usman

The plant Spondias mombin Linn. also called yellow mombin in English, Igongo/Ichankla in Idoma, and Uchakuru in Igbo, is common in the forest and savanna regions of Nigeria. It is used in several countries of the world to treat various ailments including infectious diseases. Water, chloroform, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of leaf, root, and bark of the mature plant were screened for antimicrobial activity using an indicator-based microdilution technique. Inhibition was measured as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The growth of Streptococcus pyogenes (mean MIC = 0.139 mg), Candida albicans (mean MIC = 0.148 mg), Salmonella typhi (mean MIC = 0.226 mg), Escherichia coli (mean MIC = 0.265 mg), and Staphylococcus aureus (mean MIC = 0.289 mg) in broth cultures were inhibited. Inhibition was significantly correlated with plant parts (r = -0.435; p < 0.05), leaf extracts having the greatest inhibitory effect (mean MIC = 0.060 mg), and the bark extracts the least (mean MIC = 0.389 mg). Statistical tests show that the mean MICs of leaf and bark extracts differ significantly (p <0.05), whereas those of leaf and root do not. The plant part by solvent interactive effect was significant (p < 0.05), suggesting that the MICs of the various plants differ significantly according to extraction solvent. Preliminary phytochemical test on aqueous extracts of the plant revealed the presence of saponins and tannins as the main phyto-constituents of the plant. These findings demonstrate the possible effectiveness of the plant, especially its leaf extracts, in treating microbial infections.

 E Umeh, J Igoli, E Agada, S Usman