Comparative morphophysiological and yield characteristics of musa genomes in Nigeria
Thirty-six (36) Musa genotypes comprising tetraploid hybrids and triploid land races belonging to AAA, AAB, and ABB Musa genomes were evaluated in three agro-ecologies following a South-North rainfall and Vegetation gradients in Nigeria. Plants were grown as sole crops at Onne (High rainforest zone), Ibadan (forest-savannah transition zone) and Abuja (Southern guinea savannah zone) plus an additional experiment grown in alley cropping system at Onne. Phenological and yield traits were measured for two crop cycles. The results revealed that crop cycle did not yield traits were measure for two crop cycles. The results revealed that crop cycle did not significantly influenced height of the tallest sucker at harvest of the paint crop, black sigatoka disease responses and the fruit weight. All phonological and yield traits were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the environment evaluation. Similarly, genotype, genome groups and their ploidy level significantly affected all traits measured. First order interactions involving genome/ploidy levels, crop cycle and environment were significant (P<0.05) for most traits. Triploid AAB had the longest duration for completing two crop cycles in most of the locations except at Ibadan where AAA had the longest duration. Yield was highest in Abuja for all genomes and ploidy levels whereas sole crops at Onne supported the poorest crop yield. Tetraploid hybrid AA x AA yield highest at Abuja and in alley cropping at Onne. The ABB land-races were the most productive under the Forest-Savannah transition zone of Ibadan, and were more adapted to the three ecological zones. Plantain hybrids demonstrated higher adaptation to alley cropping environment of the high rainfall zone where they were originally selected. However, plantain land-race had stable low yield across the locations. The resource base of each environment dictated genotypes performance and consequently genome/ploidy adaptation pattern. Abuja was the best for the yield and most components but had the longest duration of harvest. Alley cropping was adjudged a better and sustainable Musa production management option because it combined early crop maturity with high yield.
Bio-Research Vol. 3(1) 2005: 45-55
KP Baiyeri, BN Mbah, JSC Mbagwu, A Tenkouano