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Multiple Infections of Malaria and Typhoid Fever Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: Effect of Herbal Concoctions on CD4 Lymphocyte Count and Other Haematological Indices

We investigated malaria, typhoid and HIV co-infections among 600 persons in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria and the effect of some herbal concoctions administered in the locality on the CD4 counts of those infected with malaria, typhoid and HIV. Of 600 patients screened, 286 (47%), were infected with HIV, 452 (75%) with malaria, and 401 (66%) with typhoid).  Only 54 (9%) was uninfected. HIV infection was higher in those aged 26-35 years followed by those between 36-45 years. The prevalence of malaria was higher in males compared to females. The reverse was the case for typhoid although these gender differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Of the 600 screened, 546 persons had malaria, typhoid and HIV co-infection.  The greatest number (121) of these triply co-infected persons had CD4 counts that ranged from 201-300 cells/µl. Average counts of other hematologic parameters were: 514+21 for CD4 cell count; 15.01 ± 4.1 for WBC; 84.56 ± 81 for lymphocyte count, and 69.18± 3.0 for red blood cell (PCV). On the gender level, out of the 546 triply infected persons observed, 232 were males, and 314, females, with preponderance of female to male ratios. The effect of conventional antiretroviral therapy (ART), and herbal concoction separately on the CD4 counts of the 50 triply infected volunteers (with baseline CD4 counts below 200cells/µl) were evaluated in one monthly intervals of treatment. Prior to this treatment, the 50 volunteer patients had mean CD4 count of 118.60+60.17 cells/µl. Following administration of the antiretroviral and the herbal concoctions, a total of 39 patients responded positively to the treatment, with significantly increased mean CD4 count of 202.31+86.72 cells/µl. Using the different antiretroviral drugs and effectors, it was observed that the different drug regimen significantly boosted  the CD4 count at the end of treatment (p < 0.05). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in the CD4 cell count of male and female volunteers before (110.25 +55.51 vs. 122.78 +62.81 cells/µl) and after (177.69+82.64 vs. 214.63+87.34 cells/µl) treatment. Similarly, levels of TWBC, HB and PCV were significantly improved (p < 0.05) following the treatment. Furthermore, when the TWBC, HB and PCV of volunteers who had negative and positive response after treatment were compared, only the HB of those who responded positively to treatment showed a significant increase (p < 0.05).
 

1Dibua, U.M.E.* and 2Nweze, I.E. 1,2Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

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